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Sir Etienne was a champion of the people
and a tireless defender of the free press.

SIR ETIENNE DUPUCHWhen he died at his Camperdown home in August 1991 at the age of 92, heartfelt tributes to Sir Etienne Dupuch poured forth from simple Bahamians, politicians and dignitaries alike. The fiercely independent-minded editor and publisher of The Tribune had made many friends and more than a few enemies in his lifetime. Upon his death, all were united in their admiration of the man who had helped shape the minds and change the lives of his fellow Bahamians, not only through his editorials, but the many causes he undertook for those less fortunate than he.

In an eloquent letter to The Tribune, then Senator Theresa Moxey, who had worked at the newspaper during her university days, praised Sir Etienne as a “giant of a man” and a fearless editor, but recognized an even greater debt that society owed him. “It is… important that we do not simply remember Sir Etienne as a social and political commentator and opinion-maker about local politics and local social phenomena. Of course, we value his contribution in this light and we shall perhaps be the poorer for the loss of it,” she wrote. “Of even greater significance, however, is the fact that Sir Etienne, through The Tribune, succeeded in making world citizens out of so many Bahamians.”

In a parliamentary session dedicated to paying tribute to Sir Etienne, then FNM MP Algernon Allen noted that “his stamp upon The Bahamas will be a stamp which will be measured in terms of the Yeltsins of this world, the Churchills of this world, men who stood in the face of opposition and said, ‘I stand for democracy. I stand for freedom. I stand for truth.’ We will sorely miss him.”

Knighted by three different countries
Sir Etienne’s humble beginnings belied the great man he would become. Eulogized by journalist Athena Damianos as “a Bahamian Christian soldier,” Sir Etienne would end racial discrimination in The Bahamas, launch the second-largest war effort in the British Empire, help hundreds of crippled children, raise money for scholarships, hurricane relief efforts and families in distress, be knighted by three different countries and earn two honorary doctorates, among countless other accomplishments. All the while he waged his daily battles for social justice and freedom of the press as editor of The Tribune.

While his keen insights often went unappreciated at home – the late Dame Doris Johnson once referred to him in the Senate as “that pesky pimple on the body politic of The Bahamas” – international news organizations recognized his journalistic prowess with their highest honours. He was awarded the Inter-American Press Association (IAPA)-Mergenthaler Award in Washington in 1969 “in recognition of meritorious public service in defence of freedom of the press” in “his vigorous campaign against a (government) Bill which was also opposed by IAPA because some of its clauses restricted press freedom” in The Bahamas. This was Sir Etienne’s second IAPA award. The first was in 1956 for his effective crusade against racial discrimination in The Bahamas. He was also entered in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest-serving editor of a newspaper. He became the second colonial to receive the Royal Arts Society medal in recognition of services in journalism to The Bahamas and the Commonwealth, and was awarded a citation from the Associated Press Editors Association for outstanding work in journalism.

He would befriend the likes of Lord Beaverbrook and Admiral of the Fleet the Earl Mountbatten of Burma and earn the admiration of presidents and royalty, but never lose the common touch that prompted one letter writer to The Tribune to reminisce: “When I went to school, Political Science was not part of our curriculum, therefore, whatever you wanted to know you had to read in books – very limited – or talk to somebody who had been around, so to speak. That’s how Sir Etienne became my mentor and my hero. Words cannot express my gratitude and appreciation for all the knowledge I have gained from The Tribune’s editorials over the years.”

An early start
Born into a poor but upstanding family, Sir Etienne’s capacity to read human nature and his sense of social justice were developed at an early age. His father, Leon Dupuch, had founded The Tribune in 1903 with a tiny treadle press and a strong conviction that a newspaper must serve all of society, not just an elite sector. Out of necessity and poverty, his children went to work at a young age. “My sister Naomi was so small when she started setting type that she was strapped to a stool so that she wouldn’t fall off if she took a nap. Naomi was four years my senior,” wrote Sir Etienne, who began his career when he was five:

“I pinched an armful of papers and walked across East Street, then known as New Road, and I sold them all. I got myself a job. Salary: a penny every Saturday. This opened one of the most interesting and important phases in my life. Gradually I went deeper and deeper into New Road and finally circled into Farm Road (Market Street South). I thought that the most wonderful people in the whole world were living on those two streets; to me they were good, solid families. My route became a regular social tour. When I grew up to realize that these people were considered inferior I boiled inwardly because they still had some of the fine qualities that many of the ‘superior’ people had lost.”

Little did he know at the time, but this was to be his early education. Leon Dupuch did not have the money to provide consistent formal schooling for his children, but he taught them an invaluable lesson that would stand Sir Etienne in good stead for the many battles he would face as editor: “The success of a newspaper does not depend on its mechanical and physical strength, but rather on the spirit that motivates it.” The paper’s motto, well-known today: “Being bound to swear to the dogmas of no master.”

The constant strain of trying to keep the paper afloat against the powerful ruling class, who tried their best to shut it down, took its toll on Leon Dupuch. He died at age 44 in 1914. His wife Harriet Clementine, a former teacher who had schooled her children at home on top of her household duties and helping run The Tribune, had died in 1909 giving birth to a stillborn child. Leon married Ethelinda Pyfrom in 1911 and a new baby, Eugene Aubrey, was added to the family in 1912.

Etienne’s older brother Gilbert, a talented artist, had kept the paper running following their father’s death, but now the job of editor was dumped in young Etienne’s lap. He had recently returned from serving in the First World War, where he held the rank of private and was awarded Overseas and Victory medals. He was just 17 when he fudged his age and enlisted (after an earlier attempt when he was rejected as too young and too small) to serve with the British West India Regiment. While young Etienne had more life experience than most 20-year-olds, he was ill-prepared for the challenge of running The Tribune. “I was a printer, but I lacked both the education and the experience needed to edit this newspaper… It was hell… You have heard it said that the best way to teach a child to swim is to throw him overboard and make him find his way back to land. Well, that is what happened to me that day in April 1919 when I walked into The Tribune after three years overseas on active service… For me that day… it was sink or swim,” he recalled in an editorial on the 75th anniversary of the newspaper.

A guiding light
The one person who helped Etienne stay afloat was Fr Chrysostom Schreiner, OSB, founder of the Catholic Church in The Bahamas. His influence on the young man was profound. Although a rabid anti-Catholic, young Etienne took up study with the priest. (He later became a Catholic and a papal knight.)

“I had no friends in The Bahamas who could or would help me,” recalled Sir Etienne of this period in his life. “Indeed, it seemed that every strong hand in the island was turned against The Tribune. I was about to give up the struggle against what seemed to be insuperable odds and go abroad at the time I met Fr Chrysostom.” Not only did the priest volunteer to train Etienne for the job which he had inherited, he treated him like a son, even sending him to St John’s University in Minnesota in 1927 for special studies to round off his education. During his stay in the US Etienne met his wife, Marie Plouse of Pennsylvania. (After many years of marriage he would write, “Heaven for me is anywhere my wife and I are alone together.”)

John Marquis, today managing editor of The Tribune, captured the extent of Fr Chrysostom’s influence on Sir Etienne when he wrote, “Newspapermen, almost inevitably, become cynics because they see human behaviour at its very worst. They are alert to the liars, charlatans, dissemblers, turncoats and cowards in their midst because they are obliged to confront them, and write about them, every working day. Sir Etienne was familiar with them all, regarding them with open contempt leavened by a measure of Christian understanding. He knew all about human frailties and showed a remarkable capacity for forgiveness.”

In his record-breaking 54 years as editor and publisher of The Tribune, Sir Etienne had many occasions to be bitter or angry, but guided by solid principles and the love of his wife and family, especially his sister Naomi and his little brother Eugene, he was able to stay the course. Janet Bostwick, former Attorney-General of The Bahamas under the FNM government, noted that Sir Etienne never compromised his principles, “and that his principles started first with his private and genuine communion with his God.” Whatever battle he waged, Sir Etienne was never alone.

Working for a good cause
Some campaigns were more easily won than others, and one in particular gained immediate and overwhelming public support. Within a week of publishing a story in 1954 about Whitney Mortimer, a four-year-old Bahamian boy in need of post-polio treatment at a Miami clinic, $6,000 had poured into bank accounts opened by Sir Etienne on behalf of the child. As even more money poured in – not just from Bahamians, but from as far away as Canada, Hong Kong and Switzerland – the effort blossomed into the Crippled Children’s Committee. Over time donations grew to $60,000 a year and the committee, thanks to generous American doctors, headed by Dr Charles Burbacher, OBE, who donated their talents, was able to provide free medical treatment to scores of children.

Such was the power of Sir Etienne’s pen.

“Although Sir Etienne credited Fr Chrysostom with teaching him how to write, there can be no doubt that he was born to write as Mozart was born to make music,” wrote journalist Sir Arthur Foulkes in a tribute to Sir Etienne. “John Sheffield in his Essay on Poetry in 1682 wrote: ‘Of all the arts in which the wise excel, Nature’s chief art is writing well.’ Sir Etienne was a master of nature’s chief art. In a larger setting, say the US or Great Britain, he would have great fame and fortune. Still, writing from this tiny colony, he attracted international attention and acclaim.”

He launched a war drive of mammoth proportions
This became apparent during the Second World War, when Sir Etienne launched a war drive of mammoth proportions. Against protocol, Sir Etienne went over the head of the Duke of Windsor – the wartime governor and onetime King of England who abdicated the throne to marry American divorcée Wallis Warfield Simpson – to deal directly with the War Office.

Only the African nation of Rhodesia, with its huge beef industry, surpassed The Bahamas in its food donations to Great Britain. Sir Etienne’s was such a major operation that Washington sent an observer to Nassau to see what the committee was doing. Besides large shipments of metals and other essential materials to the Ministry of Supply, the committee also operated a canning factory to help feed the children of England. All the metals, food, sisal fibre, rubber, gold and other materials were gifts from the Bahamian people. A collection of gold watches and jewellery among old families in Nassau was sold in London for enough to endow a hospital bed in Malta.

Sir Etienne also approached the Admiralty and arrangements were made to build trawlers for Britain at Symonette’s Shipyards in Nassau, and he served under Sir Kenneth Solomon on a committee that collected money to buy fighter planes for the RAF.

His eldest child, Eileen Carron, today editor and publisher of The Tribune, recalled the example her father set for others during the tough war years, when food shortages and isolation from the world were a real and constant threat, and rationing was introduced. As a public figure, the gasoline rationing did not apply to Sir Etienne, but he insisted on setting an example. “He did not take advantage of his position, but bought himself a bicycle and six smaller bicycles ranging in size from a semi-adult to almost a tricycle for his baby (Pierre, today MP for St Margaret),” she wrote. “It must have been a strange sight in the mornings to see him and his six stragglers pedalling furiously behind him. He dropped them off at St Francis Academy, then located at the Hermitage on the Eastern Road, and continued on his way to his office. He could often be seen after dark pedalling home, a shopping bag filled with odds and ends for his wife in his front carrier basket.” Sir Etienne also operated a successful farm as part of the war economy, including livestock, fruit, vegetables and bees. His children remember early morning forages to the eastern beaches to collect seaweed to fertilize the land, among other household chores.

A night of high drama in the political arena
During this time when elected officials served without pay out of duty to their country, Sir Etienne and his brother Eugene were among them. Sir Etienne served in the House of Assembly for 24 years, from 1925-42 and again from 1949-56. He served another four years in the Legislative Council, from 1960-64, and four years in the Senate, from 1964-68. A constitutional expert, Eugene served in the House from 1950-67 and as Minister of Welfare from 1964-67. He was a member of the governor’s Executive Council and under the United Bahamian Party he served as acting premier on four occasions. The brothers were also members of a 20-man delegation sent to London in 1963 to write a constitution for The Bahamas, changing the form of government from representative to responsible. They were the third generation of Dupuchs to serve. Leon Dupuch was a Member of Parliament for the Eastern District. His uncle Joseph was the first member of the Dupuch family to be elected to the House of Assembly. Joseph was the eldest son of Elias Dupuch of Bordeaux, France, who established the family in Nassau in 1840. Sir Etienne’s sons Bernard and Pierre became the fourth generation to serve.

Together, Sir Etienne and Eugene were a formidable force, both at The Tribune, where Eugene was assistant editor, and in politics. The Hon Eugene Dupuch, QC, was a brilliant lawyer, a powerful writer, a talented musician and a statesman at the centre of all major human rights campaigns in The Bahamas during his lifetime.

In one of the toughest and most dramatic battles of their lives, the brothers took up the fight to end racial discrimination in The Bahamas. On the night of Jan 23, 1956, Sir Etienne tabled a historic resolution in the House of Assembly calling for an end to racial discrimination in The Bahamas. He asked members to go on the record as deploring “discrimination in hotels, theatres and other places in the colony against persons on account of their race or colour.” Eugene, the member for Crooked Island, told the House that the matter before them was a question of “pure and simple Christianity – a question of right and justice.”

Sir Etienne appealed to the men to make the right decision for the benefit of all Bahamians. “The day is past in the world when classes and races can be divided by some cruel invisible line. The time has come when people all over the world have become conscious of the fact that human freedom is indivisible. It is a quality of mind that cannot be broken up into parcels and one group handed one set of freedoms and another given another set. There can be only one freedom – and it must be the equal and indivisible freedom of all the people.”

“So it was that Sir Etienne’s greatest achievement came about after a tireless campaign in The Tribune and one night of high drama in the political arena,” wrote Sir Arthur.

“In anticipation of a historic moment, men and women from all walks of life crowded the public gallery for Sir Etienne’s resolution. It called for a commission of enquiry to investigate all matters relating to such discrimination in the colony with power to make recommendations for eliminating this evil by legislation or otherwise,” recalled Sir Arthur. He explained that Sir Etienne asked for a commission rather than a committee of the House “because he feared his resolution would be sent to what was known in parliamentary circles as a ‘graveyard committee,’ one that would never meet and if it met, would never report.”

Sir Arthur continued: “That was exactly the response as Frank Christie moved to have the resolution sent to a committee. His motion was carried 11-9 and Speaker Asa H Pritchard appointed him to head the committee.” Voting with Sir Etienne were B A Cambridge (the seconder), Eugene Dupuch, Dr R W Sawyer, Dr C R Walker, Marcus Bethel, H M Taylor, Gerald Cash and Donald McKinney. Voting to send the matter to committee were F H Christie, R T Symonette, C W F Bethell, Foster Clarke, P G D Bethell, G A Bethel, Stafford Sands, Roy Solomon, B H McKinney, Harold Christie and Harold Johnson.

“Sir Etienne was outraged and rose to protest the Speaker’s appointment of the graveyard committee and his having taken the matter out of the mover’s hands by appointing Frank Christie chairman. When Sir Etienne refused the Speaker’s orders to sit down, the Speaker threatened to call the police to arrest him,” Sir Arthur explained.

“You can call the whole police force, you can call the whole British army. I will go to jail tonight but I refuse to sit down,” said Sir Etienne.

“The well-known voice of Freddie Munnings, popular Bahamian musician, was heard from the public gallery: ‘Don’t touch him!’” wrote Sir Arthur. The House was adjourned and the meeting ended in great confusion. The Speaker’s procession from the chair was broken up as the crowd surged around Sir Etienne and he was taken from the building by an enthusiastic citizenry. Sir Asa never carried out his threat to have Sir Etienne arrested.

The next day hotel managers – led by Lady Oakes, who took out a full-page ad in The Tribune saying the British Colonial Hotel was open to all – announced the end of racial discrimination in their establishments. The resolution was passed one month later.

Many years later Carron would write of her father: “He had lived by the simple belief that ‘a man standing alone with God is always a majority.’ And on that night, in that hostile atmosphere, he was very much a man on his own with God.” With black Bahamians finally raised to the level of first-class citizens, things seemed to be going well, but five months later the people of the Eastern District, with whom generations of his family had been closely identified, voted Sir Etienne out of office.

“They wanted revenge for years of humiliation. In that election they threw me overboard for a second time in my life and I have cheerfully accepted their decision,” Sir Etienne wrote in 1976. He actually despised politics and had only served to help his country.

“I believe he regarded politics somewhat like the Lord’s children regard the world: he was in it but not of it. He obviously enjoyed the excitement of the arena and valued the opportunity to change things. But he disdained the grubby aspects of Bahamian politics,” wrote Sir Arthur.

The brothers played a major role
Sir Etienne was appointed to the Senate by Sir Raynor Arthur, governor of The Bahamas from 1957-60. He was grateful for the support Sir Etienne had shown him during a 1958 general strike that had threatened to erupt into something far worse.

“After the 1958 general strike, Allan Lennox Boyd, then Secretary of State for the colonies, came to The Bahamas to judge for himself what reforms needed to be implemented. Sir Etienne’s son, Bernard, and I were among the press corps at the airport to cover his arrival,” Sir Arthur recalled. Sir Etienne and Eugene, through their contacts in the Colonial Office and friendship with Lord Beaverbrook, were greatly instrumental in bringing Lennox Boyd to The Bahamas. Lord Beaverbrook, then the most powerful press baron in Britain, had strong political connections, having served as a member of Winston Churchill’s Cabinet during the war, and was known as the maker and breaker of British prime ministers. He and Sir Etienne always worked closely together.

“As soon as Lennox Boyd got off the plane he asked, ‘How can I get in touch with Etienne Dupuch?’,” wrote Sir Arthur. “That visit resulted in the addition of four House of Assembly seats to New Providence, all of which were won by the fledgling Progressive Liberal Party. Sir Etienne’s credibility in London was an invaluable influence in this case and generally during those years when there were direct appeals to London for reforms which were resisted tooth-and-nail by the local ruling clique. Among these crucial issues were the secret ballot, abolition of plural voting, including the property and the company votes, the enfranchisement of women and the introduction of universal adult suffrage and distribution of parliamentary seats. The chief beneficiary of these reforms was the PLP.”

“Free press in Bahamas due entirely to one man”
When the PLP emerged as a political powerhouse, Sir Etienne “warned the nation of the party’s shortcomings long before the leaders themselves were aware of the havoc they were destined to wreak,” wrote editor Marquis. Sir Etienne and his family would pay heavily for his outspokenness, struggling to keep the newspaper alive during the PLP’s 25-year reign. (The new PLP of Prime Minister Perry Christie, elected to power in a landslide victory in 2002, has taken great pains to separate itself from the party of the past.)

In its early days Sir Etienne thought the fledgling PLP might be the answer to the needs of the Bahamian people. The young party had its first major clash with the ruling UBP over the appointment of boards, until then the sole prerogative of the governor without reference to anyone else. The UBP demanded the right to select the boards for the governor to appoint.

The issue was taken to London. Governor Sir Raynor and the Attorney-General also went to the Colonial Office, where they were surprised to find the influence The Tribune wielded. The talks resulted in a substantial victory for the governor and the PLP.

On their return to The Bahamas the PLP delegates described Sir Etienne in their party newspaper as the “greatest” for the help he gave them at the Colonial Office.

In his own words, Sir Etienne records the sequence of events in Nassau on the delegates’ return: “The PLP delegation called a meeting on the Southern Recreation Grounds to report on their London mission. The governor had helped them in London, but for some inconceivable reason, a member of the delegation (L O Pindling, later to become Sir Lynden Pindling and the first Prime Minister of The Bahamas) completely misrepresented the role the governor played in the talks. This alarmed me. I began to look at this group more closely and realized that I could not be associated with the PLP and said so in my paper. Immediately The Herald (the PLP’s newspaper) went into reverse in its opinion of me. From that day until it finally folded, I became its favourite bone and it gnawed at me constantly – without effect, of course.”

Arthur Hanna, deputy prime minister under the old PLP and one of Sir Etienne’s harshest critics, later candidly admitted on the floor of the House that they disagreed all along the line, but that he admired him as “a fine Bahamian son” and a “clean fighter” and applauded him for his tenacity. “Sir Etienne made the PLP active and alive and kept them on their toes,” he said. “He stood there tenaciously, as tenaciously as he could. When all others failed, he stood alone and that is what I admire him for,” Hanna said, adding, “I see many of the things he said today, I wish I was wise enough in my younger years to accept. But unfortunately, wisdom comes with age.”

Sir Orville Turnquest, former Governor-General, said democracy in The Bahamas owes a deep debt of gratitude to Sir Etienne. “Today, the fact that there is a free press in The Bahamas, whether some of us care to admit it or not, is due entirely to one man because there were times when, despite great sacrifices and many attempts at muzzling The Tribune, which was the only voice in disagreement and opposition sometimes to what some of us regarded as a reckless government, Sir Etienne stood firm,” said Sir Orville.

Sir Etienne spoke out against anybody he perceived to be in the wrong, regardless of their position or wealth. “His uncanny ability to make accurate predictions about people, especially people in politics, was disconcerting to his sometime adversaries, myself included. His secret was his keen interest in people and his astute observation of human nature,” Sir Arthur wrote. “He was not infallible, to be sure, but he was startlingly accurate about how some of our own political leaders would act once they had come to power.”

Dupuch was a “second government” in Bahamas
Arrogant colonial officials and governors – including the Duke of Windsor – all felt the scourge of Sir Etienne’s pen, said Sir Arthur.

Indeed, Sir Etienne was “a second government” in The Bahamas. “He never sat in the Executive Council prior to ministerial government nor in the Cabinet after, but he was nevertheless a real presence at many meetings. Those who sat in that rarefied atmosphere knew that what Sir Etienne would write about their decisions would be read far and wide and perfectly understood high and low,” wrote Sir Arthur.

He noted that “when the gauntlet was thrown down – most often by himself – Sir Etienne asked no quarter and gave none. He went after some Old Guard politicians with a vengeance even though he knew they would not hesitate to try to cut off advertising, a newspaper’s lifeblood.”

This tenacity in sticking to his principles and defending the freedom of the press against seemingly insurmountable odds, as well as his unique writing style, earned Sir Etienne the highest kudos from colleagues and institutions around the world.

“There was a mesmerizing rhythm in Sir Etienne’s writing. Sometimes he would use his pen like a fencer uses a rapier: elegant thrusts of delicious ridicule to puncture the ego of some puffed-up politician. Or like a burly construction worker uses a jack-hammer: an unrelenting staccato of blows to shatter the hardened attitudes of some bloc-headed bigot,” wrote Sir Arthur.

“He wielded the pen like a baton in the hands of a skilled conductor: with all the cadences, nuances and grace notes employed to tell a story. Sammy Swain, a tale of unrequited love and paranormal goings-on in Cat Island, was serialized in The Tribune and was a small masterpiece. It was later put to music by Bahamian composer Clement Bethel. One can only speculate what Sir Etienne would have done with a full-length novel.”

A man of international acclaim
That Sir Etienne was highly regarded on the international scene became apparent during The Tribune’s 75th birthday, when tributes flowed in from a host of powerful people, including Lord Astor of Hever, president of the Commonwealth Press Union and president of Times Newspapers Ltd; George Beebe, associate publisher of
The Miami Herald; Stanley M Swinton, vice-president and director of the World Services Division of The Associated Press; the Earl and Countess of Ranfurly; Major General Sir Robert Neville; and the Admiral of the Fleet the Earl Mountbatten of Burma,
uncle of Prince Phillip.

Sir Etienne was definitely a player on the world stage, and more than half of his daily editorials concerned important world events. His commentaries created a tradition of lively public discourse in The Bahamas that is alive and well today.

“Sir Etienne witnessed many world-shaking events and played a part in some of them… He witnessed the cataclysmic eruption of communism and its wild fire race throughout the world. He predicted its failure because he realized that its founders had made some fundamental miscalculations about human nature. He lived long enough to see the collapse of that system in its most powerful manifestation,” wrote Sir Arthur. He said that while the editor was a “Loyalist to the higher ideals of the ‘Mother Country,’” he was a “severe critic of many of her follies in the Empire. He was aware of the mounting disaffection in the colonies before Harold MacMillan made his famous ‘winds of change’ speech after a visit to Africa. Earlier, he berated Britain for not opposing Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia which he said might have helped to avert World War II.”

But Sir Arthur pointed out that “it would be wrong to think that Sir Etienne was always preoccupied with the grand affairs of state. As a young man he was an outstanding athlete who participated in track, boxing, swimming, cycling, soccer, rowing and horse racing. He was also involved in charities.”

It is difficult to imagine where Sir Etienne found the energy or the time for his many achievements, but his close friend, the late dentist and historian Dr Paul Albury, had an inkling.

“A human’s road through life is seldom smooth, and Sir Etienne’s has been rougher than most, a path strewn with boulders and rutted with gullies,” wrote Albury. “Faced with such obstructions the weak strive to avoid them, and the strong to conquer them. Sir Etienne’s successful battles against seemingly insurmountable odds demonstrate what a splendid race can be run when a man is endowed with courage and guided by honest thoughts and incorruptible principles.”

Perhaps the most fitting words of all came from Sir Etienne’s youngest son, MP Pierre Dupuch, who, like the other Dupuch children, is a chip off the old man’s block. “He never tried to convey that he was more than a mere mortal man, but we do recognize that his shadow did extend almost into the horizon,” Pierre told Parliament during a morning of tributes five days after his father’s death. “None of us will ever attempt to, or be so foolish as to, believe that we can fit his shoes. We will merely do our best.”
       Excerpt from Bahamas Handbook 2003

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